Design & Technology
Think creatively and using 21st century skills to turn ideas into reality
OUTCOMES OF D&T EDUCATION
DESIGN is the process of identifying, investigating and analyzing problems; researching existing ideas and generating new ideas; proposing and realising solutions; and evaluating the outcome to see if the problems have been solved.
TECHNOLOGY is the understanding and application of concepts, functions, properties of materials, design processes, etc., to solve practical problems or realise an artefact.
- To develop an awareness and appreciation in the design domain.
- To develop an appreciation of function, aesthetics and technology in design;
- To identify important 21st century skills and ICT tools and imparting it to students through the D&T syllabus to enhance their learning.
- To foster positive values and develop dispositions for enterprise, creativity and innovation through research and exploration, idea conceptualization and development, communication, working with materials and tools in response to needs identified.
- To harness student’s innate curiosity and ability to create through design-and-make activities.
- To develop the student’s ability in refinement of their ideas towards a viable solution within a given timeframe.
- To discover student’s potential and develop their design thinking process through design journal and coursework communication.
- To develop an awareness of design in the areas of social, culture and environment; and to acquire knowledge and skills beyond that as stipulated in the syllabus through the contexts of the design-and-make activities.
Design and Technology
Design and technology is offered as an elective ‘O’ Level subject for our upper secondary students for both Sec 4 Normal Academic and Express stream.
The D&T syllabus comprises three learning domains broadly classified as Design Appreciation, Designing and Making. Pupils will learn to apply knowledge and skills through design-and-make activities.
Design appreciation exposes pupils to product awareness, product functions, aesthetics, design in society, and cultural and technological influences on design.
Through the design process, pupils learn and practise basic strategies and skills in research, analysis, ideation and development, evaluation and design communication.
Pupils acquire basic making skills and related knowledge through the manipulation of resistant materials, simple modelling materials and basic technology; and the execution of appropriate techniques and processes in a workshop environment. Through making, pupils also learn to use materials prudently and develop the habit of effective and efficient work processes in a safe manner.
Lower Sec Instructional Programme
Some features of our D&T Instructional Programme:
- We see it as a 4-year instructional plan. (Continuity, i.e skills learn in lower sec are applied in upper sec)
- Common Curriculum for Lower Sec Exp/NA (NT undergo similar curriculum but slightly more simplified.)
- At Lower Sec level, we focus more on skills (e.g graphical, practical, evaluation and research skill) rather than heavy content.
- Aims to arouse interest and creativity in design.
What was Taught in Sec 1?
- Emphasize more on imparting skills rather than teaching whole chunk of content.
- Scaffolds the Design Process into parts where students learn different skills/technique instead of going into the whole Design Journal. (Piece-meal approach)
Skills that we taught include:
- Graphical skill
- Ideational Technique (shape borrowing and SCAMPER technique).
- Materials Selection (Done in the form of incidental Theory – during Practical work)
- Safety and Practical skills (Marking out, cutting, shaping, bending, drilling, jointing and finishing)
- Focusing on skills serve us better rather than going into too much theory because by Sec 3, we realised that students will tend to forget all theory taught and thus, we have to reteach again. Thus, we do away with theory portion in topics such as Material and Technology – only introduce as incidental theory and at appreciation level)
- Skills taught are easier for students to remember. By Sec 3, it will be easier for us to build on the skills they have learned in lower sec.
Guiding Templates to start with 2D sketching that teaches the concept of size & proportion.
Activity 1 – Ideation:
- Use the 2D template to randomly draw at least 2 straight lines and 1 curve.
- Sketch 3 pages of 2D drawings (i.e. 8 X 3 = 24 drawings)
2D extrusion to 3D – The Concept of Thickness
Activity 2 – Development:
- Select 4 interesting designs from Activity 1 and convert it into 3D using the 3D template.
Step 1: Use the template orientate at different 3-D
Step 2: Draw the shape on the template again
Step 3: Slowly morph the shape further
Step 1: To appreciate the shape first!
Step 2: Get students to manipulate the shapes (By rearranging them) – Introduce some elements of SCAMPER
Some Sec 1 Students’ Samples
What was Taught in Sec 2?
- Thematic Project – Table-mate
- Riding on to the skills that were taught in Sec 1
- Apply these skills in the project.
Skills that we taught include:
- Design Situation (Design Thinking – Reframe the problem), Brief and Specification (Using Table-mate video)
- Research – Mood/Image board, Measurements, Survey and interviews.
- Ideational Technique (continuation)
- No practical work in Sec 2 and is replaced by model making.
- Why practical work is replaced by model making because we want to teach students evaluation skill (How to continuously improve their product by modelling)
- We only touch on the essence of the Design Process.
Using the Design Thinking Approach Reframing the Problem (for Lower Sec)
Possible Design Outcomes
- Working adult (who/user) needs to find a shorter route to get to their work place on time (what/needs) because they don’t want to be late. (why/insights)
- Possible Design Outcomes
- A well-established connectors/road networks that shorten pedestrian travel time to city. (System Improvement)
- Reframe this issue by looking it at night time, i.e street lights for pedestrian when walking back home, safety for female pedestrians.
- Reframe this issue by imagining it in a rainy day where soil get stuck in the sole of the shoe. A device to clean the sole of the shoes after walking through a muddy terrain. (Product Improvement)
Research (3 main domains)
- Mood Board showing a range of Tables in current market.
- Survey and Interview: Students interview each other to find their needs as a table user.
- Measurements: Finding Critical Dimensions
Facilitation of Coursework In Upper Secondary
- Planning and Monitoring
|1. Planning and Monitoring (Student’s sample)
|2. Identifying Needs
|3. Research (Student’s sample)
(i) A page to identify areas that needs further improvement.
(ii) Development of structure – the main frame of the chosen idea (i.e how to improve aesthetic, stability, strengthening or for functionality purpose.)
(iii) Development of mechanism/electronics and functions (i.e how the product works and functions through the use of technology integration).
(vi) Making process, choice of materials, assembling process.
Note: Improvement and changes made after model testing. Product became more portable and manageable.